Up board class 12 english chapter 7 The Heritage of India -A.L. Basham
The Heritage of India -A.L. Basham सम्पूर्ण पाठ का हिन्दी रूपान्तरण
राममोहन राय ने सामाजिक सुधार के अपने प्रबल समर्थन द्वारा समाजसेवा के नए युग का सूत्रपात किया; विवेकानंद ने अधिक राष्ट्रवादी स्वर में इसे दोहराया, जब उन्होंने यह घोषणा की कि समाजसेवा मातृभूमि की सेवा का सर्वाधिक महान रूप है। अन्य महान् भारतीयों ने जिनमें महात्मा गांधी मुख्य है, समाजसेवा को धार्मिक कर्तव्य के रूप में विकसित किया और यह विकास गांधी जी के उत्तराधिकारियों द्वारा जारी है।
अनेक भारतीयों तथा यूरोपवासियों द्वारा महात्मा गांधी को भारतीय परम्परा का विशिष्ट प्रतिनिधि माना गया परन्तु यह गलत निर्णय है क्योंकि वे पाश्चात्य विचारधारा से अधिक प्रभावित थे। गांधी जी अपनी प्राचीन संस्कृति के मूल सिद्धान्तों में विश्वास करते थे, परन्तु दलित वर्ग के लिए उनका गहरा प्रेम और जाति-प्रथा के प्रति उनकी घृणा थी, यद्यपि प्राचीन भारत में ऐसे उदाहरणों की कमी नहीं थी,
और वे अपनी इस धारणा में किसी भी भारतीय तत्व की अपेक्षा यूरोप के उन्नीसवीं शताब्दी के उदारवाद के अधिक ऋणी थे। जैसा हम देख चुके हैं, अहिंसा में उनका विश्वास किसी भी प्रकार से हिन्दुत्व का प्रतिरूप नहीं था- विद्रोह में उनके अग्रज, सुयोग मराठा ब्राह्मण बाल गंगाधर तिलक, और गांधी जी के उत्साही सहायक सुभाषचंद्र बोस इस सम्बंध में कहीं अधिक कट्टर थे। गांधी जी के शान्तिवाद के लिए हमें ईसा द्वारा पर्वत पर दिए गए उपदेश तथा टॉलस्टॉय पर निर्भर रहना पड़ेगा। उनका महिलाओं के अधिकारों के लिए समर्थन भी पाश्चात्य प्रभाव का फल है। अपने सामाजिक सन्दर्भ में वह रूढ़िवादी की अपेक्षा परिवर्तनवादी थे। यद्यपि उनके साथियों में से कुछ उनके समाज-सुधार के कार्यक्रम को सीमित और उनकी गति को बहुत धीमी मानते थे, वे हिन्दू विचार परम्परा को वर्ग और जाति के घेरे से निकालकर जनप्रिय सामाजिक समरसता तक लाने में सफल हुए। उन्नीसवीं शताब्दी के अनेक कम प्रसिद्ध सुधारकों के कार्य को आगे बढ़ाते हुए गांधी जी और भारतीय राष्ट्रीय कांग्रेस के उनके अनुयायियों ने हिन्दू संस्कृति को शताब्दियों की निष्क्रियता के उपरान्त नई दिशा और नया जीवन प्रदान किया है।
आज बहुत कम भारतवासी ऐसे हैं, चाहे उनकी धार्मिक धारणाएँ कुछ भी हों, जो अपनी प्राचीन संस्कृति पर गर्व न करते हों, और
बुद्धिमान भारतवासियों में ऐसे कम है जो भारतीय संस्कृति की कुछ दुर्बलताओं को छोड़ने के लिए तैयार न हों ताकि भारत का विकास
और उन्नति हो सके। राजनीतिक व आर्थिक क्षेत्र में भारत के सामने अनेक विकट समस्याएँ हैं और कोई भी व्यक्ति किसी निश्चय के साथ उसके भविष्य के बारे में पूर्वानुमान नहीं लगा सकता। परन्तु निश्चित रूप से यह भविष्यवाणी की जा सकती है कि भविष्य कुछ भी हो, आने वाली पीढ़ियों के भारतीय लोग यूरोपवासियों का अंधानुकरण नहीं करेंगे, वरन् वे ऐसे व्यक्ति होंगे जो अपनी परम्पराओं से दृढ़तापूर्वक जुड़े हों और अपनी संस्कृति की निरन्तरता को पहचानते हों। स्वतंत्रता प्राप्ति के केवल सात वर्ष पश्चात् ही राष्ट्रीय आत्मतिरस्कार और सांस्कृतिक वैभव के लिए उन्माद की अति समाप्त हो रही है। हमें विश्वास है कि हिन्दू सभ्यता संश्लेषण (समन्वय) का सर्वाधिक चमत्कारिक कार्य कर रही है। अतीत में इसने इण्डो-यूरोपियन, मेसोपोटामियन, ईरानी, यूनानी, रोमन, सेथियन, तुर्की, फारसी और अरबी आदि विभिन्न संस्कृतियों के तत्वों को ग्रहण किया, अनुकूल बनाया और आत्मसात् कर लिया। प्रत्येक नए प्रभाव के साथ भारतीय संस्कृति कुछ परिवर्तित हुई। अब यह पश्चिमी संस्कृति को आत्मसात् करने की ओर अग्रसर है।
हमें विश्वास है कि हिन्दू सभ्यता अपनी निरन्तरता को बनाए रखेगी। भगवद् गीता कर्मशील व्यक्तियों को और उपनिषद् विचारशील व्यक्तियों को प्रेरणा देते रहेंगे। भारतीय जीवनचर्चा की सुन्दर और अच्छाई निरन्तर बनी रहेगी, चाहे वह पश्चिम की परिश्रम से बचने की युक्तियों से कितना ही प्रभावित है। लोग हमेशा महाभारत और रामायण के महापुरुषों की गाथाओं तथा दुष्यन्त और शकुंतला, पुरुरवा और उर्वशी की प्रेम-कथाओं में आनन्द लेते रहेंगे। शान्ति और आनन्द से, जो सदैव भारतीय जीवन में व्याप्त रहे हैं तथा अत्याचार रोग और निर्धनता ने कभी इसे बोझिल नहीं किया है, निश्चय ही पश्चिम के अधिक उत्तेजनापूर्ण रहन-सहन समक्ष अदृश्य नहीं हो जाएंगे।
प्राचीन भारतीय संस्कृति में जो कुछ भी निरर्थक था वह पहले ही नष्ट हो चुका है। वैदिककाल की अनुचित व बर्बर सार्वजनिक बलि को कभी का भुला दिया गया है, यद्यपि कुछ सम्प्रदायों में अब भी पशुबलि जारी है। विधवाओं का अपने पति की चिता पर जलाया जाना बहुत समय पूर्व ही बन्द हो चुका है। अब लड़कियों का बचपन में कानूनन विवाह नहीं हो सकता है। समस्त भारत में बसों और रेलगाड़ियों में ब्राह्मण अपवित्रता की गंभीर चिन्ता किए बिना दलित जातियों के लोगों के सम्पर्क में आते हैं तथा मंदिर के द्वार कानूनन सबके लिए खुले है। जाति-प्रथा समाप्त होती जा रही है। यह प्रक्रिया काफी पहले ही आरम्भ हो गई थी, परन्तु इसकी गति अब इतनी तीव्र है कि एक या दो पीढ़ी में जाति-प्रथा के अधिक आपत्तिजनक तत्व अदृश्य हो जाएँगे। परिवार की प्राचीन प्रथा अपने आपको वर्तमान परिस्थितियों के अनुसार ढाल रही है। वास्तव में समस्त भारतवर्ष की तस्वीर ही बदल रही है, परन्तु सांस्कृतिक परम्परा लगातार प्रवाहमान है और यह प्रवाह कभी रुकेगा नहीं।
Explanation —- Explain with reference to the context the following:
1—Ram Mohan Roy had………….. ……………Gandhi’s successors.
Reference to the context:– These lines have been extracted from the chapter ‘The Heritage of India’. It is written by A.L. Basham. Here the contribution of great personalities like Ram Mohan Roy, Swami Vivekanand and Mahatma Gandhi is described.
Explanation:— According to the author Raja Ram Mohan Roy heralded a new era with his strong pleading of social reform Swami Vivekananda continued the same idea with nationalism. He declared that the utmost form of service of our motherland was social service. Another greatest personality Mahatma Gandhi developed the belief that serving motherland, nation and society was a religious duty. He believed in working for society non-violence and peace. His thoughts and developments were carried forward by Gandhiji’s successors.
2 Mahatma Gandhi……………. ……………to anything Indian.
Reference to the context:— These lines have been extracted from the chapter ‘The Heritage of India’. It is written by A.L. Basham. In this passage the author says that Mahatma Gandhi was influenced by west to an extent. In this way he was quits different than other reformers.
Explanation: According to the author that Mahatma Gandhi was looked as the emblem of Hindu tradition by both Indian and European people. But the author does not agree with this evaluation and finds it improper. He believes that to a great extent Mahatma Gandhi was highly influenced by the western ideas and philosophy. Gandhiji believed in the principles of his ancient culture too. His love for under privileged and his annoyance with cast system were not exceptional at that time but it was unconventional and it was according to the author, due to the influence of European’s 19th century liberal opinions and beliefs.
3. His championing …….
………… class and caste.
Reference to the context: These lines have been extracted from the chapter ‘The Heritage of India’. It is
written by A. L. Basham. In this passage, the author is talking and elaborating about the western influences of Mahatma Gandhi. According to him, Mahatma Gandhi was not a conservative but he was move progressive.
Explanation: Here the author says that Gandhiji advocating women’s right was the effect of his Western influence too. He was the man of new ideas and had liberal thoughts. According to the authors that some of Mahatma Gandhi’s colleagues considered his work and programme of limited social reform too
gradual and deliberate. He tried his best to bring equality in place of hierarchy of class, status and caste.
4. Today there are ……………………….. with any certainty.
Reference to the context: These lines have been extracted from the chapter ‘The Heritage of India’. It is written by A. L. Basham. In this passage the author is talking about the people who do not see their ancient culture with pride and these are some who are not willing to sacrifice their selfishness for the nations progress.
Explanation: The author says that these are some Indians who do not feel proud on their ancient culture and tradition. They feel embarassed about it. These are also some Indians who are never ready to sacrifice their selfish ends, not even for the progress of their country. They like their selfishness. The author further states that India faces many problems whether it is politically or economically with
money hardships. Therefore no one can tell and predict its future with surety.
5. Politically and ……………………………… feat of synthesis.
Reference to the context:— These lines have extracted from the chapter ‘The Heritage of India’. It is written by A. L. Basham. In this passage the author says that the upcoming generations of India would be rooted in their traditions and feel proud on their culture.
Explanation: Here the author says that politically and economically India struggles and faces many problems so no one can actually tell its future. According to the author he is sure that whatever future it may have, the Indians of new generations would not be selfish and just self aware people like Europeans. They will be rooted to their culture and traditions and would carry it with them. Here the author shows hope and says that it’s been just seven years and things like national self-condemnatin and cultural
chauvinism are vanishing. He believe that Hindu civilization is in the state of beginning its new victory.
6. Hindu civilization ……..
…………… of the West.
Reference to the context: These lines have been extracted from the chapter ‘The Heritage of India’. It is written by A.L. Basham. In these lines the author says that epic books will keep inspiring people of India instead of fanatical cultural chauvinism.
Explanation: The author says that Hindu culture and civilization will continue. It will never destroy. Men will get inspiration from Indian holy book the Gita. The Upanishads will inspire men’s thought in every sphere. In spite of the influence of western culture Indian people will love the inspiring stories of the Mahabharata and the Ramayana. The plays of Kalidas will continue to appeal them. They will enjoy the love stories of Dushyanta and Shakuntala and of Pururava and Urvashi. The author says that peace and gentle happiness that spread though Indian people’s life will definitely not disappear and won’t be
affected much by oppression, disease and poverty before the more hectic ways of the western countries.
7. Cast is vanishing; ……………………………….. never be lost.
Reference to the context: These lines have been extracted from the chapter ‘The heritage of India’. It is written by A.L. Basham. The author says in these lines, that in India people are accepting new trends and new traditions in changing circumstances. At present this process is in continuation. People are not accepting such type of factors in their culture which are useless in it.
Explanation: The author says that Hindu culture is changing rapidly at present. The present Hindu Culture’s base is not caste system or high or low castes. Although this process began quite sometime back, but at present its speed is too much high. It is hoped that after the present generation the evil of the caste system will disappear from the society. The old family system of the society is being changed according to the modern changes. So many great changes are taking place speedily in India. After
changes of all these the traditions the Hindu culture is going on comfortably and it will continue for ever.
Comprehension :——-Read the following passage and answer the questions given below them:
1. Ram Mohan Roy had ………… ……………. under Gandhi’s successors.
Questions with their answer:
(i) What did Ram Mohan Roy advocate?
Ans. Ram Mohan Roy advocated social reform as he was a prominent social reformer and the first
reformer in our country of modern times. He heralded a new era of social reform.
(ii) What did Vivekananda repeat after Ram Mohan Roy?
Ans. Vivekananda repeated strong pleading of social reform with a more nationalities tone. He affirmed
that the highest form and the greatest way to serve your motherland is to work for the welfare of people and society.
(iii) Which is the highest form of service of the great Mother? Ans. Social service is the highest form of service of the Great Mother.
(iv) What importance did Mahatma Gandhi give to the doctrine of social service?
Ans. Mahatma Gandhi developed the theme of social service as a religious duty.
(v) What sort of development continued under Gandhi’s successor?
Ans. Mahatma Gandhi developed the theme of social service as a religious duty and this sort of
development continued under Gandhi’s successor.
2. Mahatma Gandhi was looked ……………………………………. of western influence.
Questions with their answer:
(i) What false notion about Mahatma Gandhi is held by many Indians ans Europeans according
to the author? Ans. According to the author, the notion that Mahatma Gandhi was much influenced by western ideas is
false which is held by many Indians and Europeans.
(ii) What was Gandhi’s attitude towards Indian culture?
Ans. Gandhi believed in the fundamentals of his ancient culture.
(iii) What did Mahatma Gandhi owe to the 19th century liberalism of Europe?
Ans. Mahatma Gandhi owed more to the 19th century liberalism than to anything Indian for the empathy
to the poor and his animosity to words caste system.
(iv) Why does the author say the Gandhi’s faith in non-violence was by means typical of
Ans. The author say the Gandhi’s faith in non-violence was by no means typical of Hinduism because
according to him the Sermon on the Mount and Tolstoy were the reason for his pacifism.
3. Today there are few Indians …………………………….. of their agriculture.
Questions with their answers:
(i) What are the two types of Indians?
Ans. The first type of Indians are those who do not look on their ancient culture with pride and prestige
and the second type of those who are not willing to lose their self indulgence and feeble elements which may help in the progress and development of India.
What is needed for India’s development and progress?
Ans. Abondoning self indulgence and one’s selfishness as the things which needed for India’s
development and progress.
(iii) Why can one not forecast about India’s future with certainty? Ans. It is because India faces many problems of great difficulty, politically and economically.
(iv) What can be said of the Indians of coming generations?
Ans. The Indians of coming generations will not be unconvincing and self conscious like Europeans.
They will have deep faith in their culture and traditions.
4. Hindu civilization will ……..
…………… the more hectic ways of the west. Questions with their answer:
(i) What is the author’s opinion about the future of Hindu civilization?
Ans. The author’s opinion about the future of Hindu civilization in that it will continue in future and keep
inspiring people. (ii) Who does the ‘Bhagwad Gita’ and ‘Upanishads’ motivate? Ans. The Bhagwad Gita motivates men of action and Upanishad’s motivate men of thought.
(iii) What has sustained the people of India in troubled times?
Ans. The peace and gentle happiness have sustained the people of India in troubled times.
(iv) How does the Indian way of life differ from that of the West?
Ans. The Indian way of life is full of quiet and gentle happiness while the ways of the west are more hectic.
5. In buses………………… never be lost. Questions with their answers:
(i) What does prove that cast is disappearing fast in India?
Ans. In buses and trains, Brahmans sub shoulders with the lowest castes without consciousness of their
great loss of purity. Temples are open to all by law. This proves that castis disappearing fast in India.
(ii) How is the old family system adapting itself to the present-day needs?
Ans. The old family system adapting itselfto the present day needs according to the new and altering India.
(iii) How can you say that whole face of India is altering? Give a few examples.
Ans. In new India, the caste system in disappearing people are accepting equality. Temples are open to all
caste and creed. There are few examples which imply that the whole face of India is altering.
(iv) What does prove that India still maintains the continuity of its cultural heritage and will
continue to do so?
Ans. Caste system is vanishing gradually. The old family system is adopting itself to present day
conditions. The whole face of India is changing with out losing the essence of the cultural tradition.
This proves that India still maintains the continuity of its cultural heritage and will continue to do so.
Short Answer Type Questions
Answer the following questions in not more than 30 words each:
- What did Ram Mohan Roy advocate? Ans. Rammohan Roy advocated social reform. He was a prominent social reformer from Bengal. Raja
Rammohan Roy was the first reformer in India in the modern times. He opened the gate for social reform. 2. What according to Vivekananda was the highest form of service of the Great Mother? Ans. According to Vivekananda the highest form of service of the Great Mother was social service. The
meaning of’Great Mother’ is India and India can be served through social service. 3. What does the heritage of the India consist of? Ans. The Heritage of India consists of Hindu culture and its cultural traditions, books like the Gita, the
Upanishads, the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, love stories of ancient legends and peaceful life. 4. What does Basham mean when he says that “Hindu civilization will retain its continuity”? Ans. A. L. Basham was a great admirer of Hindu civilization. It was his form conviction that it would never
destroy. So he said that Hindu civilization would retain its continuity. By this he meant that Hindu
civilization would never perish. 5. How will Hindu civilization retain its continuity? Ans. Hindu civilization will keep in possession its continuity if people study the Gita, the Upanishads, the
Ramayana and the Mahabharata and enjoy the love stories of Dushyanta and Shakuntala as well as of
Pururava and Urvashi. 6. Did Gandhiji believe in the fundamentals of the ancient Indian culture? What is Gandhiji
contribution to India’s culture? Ans. Gandhiji was staunch supporter of fundamentals of the ancient Indian culture. He did not like the caste
system. He opposed it. He believed in the equality of man. He had passionate love for the poor. In this
way he gave Indian culture new direction and new life. 7. What grounds does the author give to prove that’Gandhiji was much influenced by Western ideas’? Ans. Gandhiji believed in the fundamentals of his ancient culture but his passionate love of the underdog and
his annoyance to caste system were unorthodox in the extreme which was unprecedented in ancient
India. On this ground the author said that Gandhiji was much influenced by western ideas.
8. What contribution did Ram Mohan Roy and Swami Vivekanand make to the Indian society?
Ans. Rammohan Roy had supported the theme of social reform with his passionate timbre. Swami
Vivekananda repeated the theme of social reform with a more nationalist timbre. Long Answer Type Questions Answer the following question in not more than 150 words each:
- What are the main features of Hindu civilization that makes it everlasting? Ans. Hindu civilization is in the act of performing its most spectacular feat of synthesis. Hindu civilization
had adopted and digested elements of many different cultures Indo-European, Mesopotamian, Tranian, Greek, Roman, Scythion, Turkish, Persian and Arab. Texts and epics like the Bhagavad Gita, the Upanishads, the Mahabharata and the Ramayana still inspire people and love there too. There are people who respect, follow and take pride over their civilization. Cultural and traditional aspect of any civilization make it stay for long and ever. The new generation will not be unconvincing and self conscious like Europeans but will be men rooted in their traditions and aware of continuity and culture.
Thus Hindu civilization will retain its continuity. 2. What influence from the East and the West went into making of Gandhiji’s personality according
to A. L. Basham? Ans. Gandhiji personality was moulded by both eastern and western influences. Gandhiji was an open
mind. He was always rather an innovator than a conservative. Gandhiji was born in India. He worked in India. He fought for the rights of Indian people. Condition of India and her people had a great influence on Gandhiji. He believed in the fundamentals of his ancient cultures. Gandhi very well understood the hierarchy of class and caste in Indian society. He succeed in shifting the whole emphasis of Hindu thought towards a popular and equalitarian social order. He gave a new direction and new life to Hindu
culture after centuries of stagnation.
(c) filthiness tinathy to caste, w
A.L. Basham says that Gandhiji was much influenced by Western ideas. His strong love for the trodden and his dislike to caste is the result of western influence. European 19th century liberalism had a great influence on Gandhi’s personality. His faith in non-violence and his pacifism are the result of the Sermon on the Mount and Tolstoy’s War and Peace.
His championing of women’s rights is also the result of Western influence. 3. What important changes, according to A.L.Basham, have taken place in India after
Independence? Ans. India achieved freedom in 1947. Since then many significant changes have taken place in India
according to the writer. They are as follows: 1. The public sacrifices of the Vedic Age have perished. Widows are not burnt on their husbands pyres.
Girls are not married in their childhood. Brahmans meet and mix with the lowest castes without
consciousness of grave pollution in buses and trains all over India. 2. Caste is vanishing. 3. Temples are open to all by law. 4. The old family system is adapting itself to present day conditions.
In fact the whole face of India is changing, but the cultural tradition is going on as such. Multiple Choice Questions Choose the most suitable option: 1. Hindu civilization will retain its continuity. (a) regain (b) refrain (c) retain
(d) remain 2. In buses and trains all over India Brahmans rub shoulders with the lowest castes without
consciousnes of grave pollution. (a) pollution (b) desecration
(d) impurity 3. Mahatma Gandhi’s passionate love of the underdog and his antipathy to caste, were unorthodox
in the extreme. (a) sympathy (b) empathy
(c) antipathy (d) antimony 4. Mahatma Gandhi and his followers have given a new orientation and new life to Hindu culture,
after centuries of stagnation. (a) presentation (b) orientation (c) intimation
(d) representation 5. Much that was useless in ancient Indian cultures has already perished. (a) violent (b) religious (c) unique
(d) useless 6. Mahatma Gandhi was looked on by many, both European and Indian as the epitome of Hindu
tradition. (a) Muslim (b) Christian (c) Hindu
(d) Persian 7. Hindu civilization will not vanish before the more hectic ways of the West. (a) tactic (b) hectic (c) static
(d) erratic 8. The ‘Upanishads’ will not cease to inspire the men of thought. (a) cease (b) crease (c) breeze
(d) grease 9. There are few Indians, Whatever their creed, who do not look back with pride on their culture. (a) a few (b) few (c) some
(d) the few 10. Hindu civilization will, we believe retain its continuity. (a) lose (b) maintain (c) retain
(d) destroy 11. In fact the whole face of India is altering, but the cultural tradition continues and it will never be lost. (a) Really (b) In reality (c) In fact
(d) Consequently 12. Subhash Chandra Bose was one of the greatest of our nationalist leaders. (a) social (b) political (c) religious
(d) nationalist 13. Gandhiji believed in the fundamentals of ancient culture. (a) sorrow (b) materialism
(c) utilitarianism (d) fundamentals 14. The old family system is adapting itself to present day condition. (a) adopting (b) connecting (c) adapting
(d) isolating 15. The cultural tradition of India will never be lost. (a) every (b) never (c) once