UP Board Class 12 English Prose Chapter 4 The Horse -Rabindranath Tagore
The Horse -Rabindranath Tagore
सम्पूर्ण पाठ का हिन्दी रूपान्तरण
सृष्टि के रचयिता (ईश्वर) के मन में उस समय एक नया विचार आया जब संसार के सृजन का कार्य लगभग समाप्त हो चुका था । उसने एक सहायक को बुलवाया और कहा, “मेरे लिए कुछ और सामग्रियाँ लाओ, मैं पशु की एक नई नस्ल बनाऊँगा । ”
सहायक ने घुटने टेककर उत्तर दिया, “परमपिता, जब सृजन के उत्साह में आपने हाथी, हेल, शेर और अजगर बनाए, आपने तनिक भी उस पदार्थ की मात्रा के विषय में नहीं सोचा जो उनमें लगी । भारी और कठोर सामान में से बहुत थोडी-सी सामग्री बची है । परन्तु हल्की सामग्री अब भी भण्डार में पर्याप्त है । “
स्रष्टा ने एक क्षण के लिए सोचा: “अच्छा, जो भी तुम्हारे पास है मुझे लाकर दो । ‘
इस बार स्रष्टा ने कठोर सामग्रियों में से थोड़ी-सी सामग्री लेने का ध्यान रखा । उस नए पशु को, जो उसने बनाया, उसने न सींग दिए व पंजे; उसने उसे ऐसे दाँत दिए जो चबा सकते थे परन्तु काट नहीं सकते थे । जो शक्ति उसने उसे दी वह उसे युद्ध क्षेत्र में उपयोगी बनाने के लिए पर्याप्त थी, परन्तु उसने उसे युद्ध के लिए कोई रूचि नहीं दी । वह पशु घोड़ा कहलाया ।
स्रष्टा ने उसके बनाने में ऐसे पदार्थ का पर्याप्त भाग लगया दिया था जिनसे वायु और आकाश बने है । इसका परिणाम यह हुआ कि उस पशु का मस्तिष्क स्वतंत्रता की लालसा से भर उठा । वह वायु के साथ दौड़ लगाता और उस स्थान तक तेज दौड़कर पहुँचता जहाँ आकाश पृथ्वी को छूता था अर्थात् घोड़े में निरन्तर दौड़ने की असीम क्षमता थी । अन्य पशु किसी उद्देश्य से दौड़ते थे, परन्तु घोड़ा बिना किसी स्पष्ट कारण के इधर-उधर दौड़ लगाता, मानों वह अपने आप से दूर उड़ जाने को आतुर हो । वह लड़ता नहीं था, वह शिकार पर झपटता नहीं था, परन्तु केवल दौड़ते रहना पसन्द करता था । बुद्धिमान लोग कहते हैं कि ऐसा तब होता है जब आप में वायु और आकाश में तत्व बहुत अधिक हों ।
स्रष्टा अपने इस कार्य से बहुत प्रसन्न हुआ । कुछ पशुओं को रहने के लिए उसने वन दिए, कुछ को उसने गुफा या माँद दी । परन्तु वह घोड़े को निरूद्देश्य दौड़ लगाते देखना पसन्द करता था, उसने उसे एक खुला मैदान दिया ।
उस मैदान के बाहर मनुष्य रहता था । वह उन बोझों के भार से झुक गया था जिनको उसने इकट्ठा कर लिया था । जब उसने घोड़े को देखा, वह जान गया कि यदि किसी प्रकार वह उसे पकड़ सके तो वह अपने ऊपर के बोझ को उसकी पीठ पर डालने में समर्थ हो सकेगा । एक दिन उसने अपना जाल फेंककर घोड़े को पकड़ लिया । उसने उसकी पीठ पर एक जीन रख दी और मुँह में एक लगाम और उसे एक कारागार में बंद कर दिया अर्थात् अपने अस्तबल में बाँध लिया ।
चीता अपने जंगल के घर में रहा और शेर अपनी गुफा में, परन्तु घोड़े ने अपना घर (खुला मैदान) खो दिया । स्वतंत्रता के लिए लगाव होते हुए भी वह बन्धनमुक्त नहीं हो सका ।
जब उसके लिए जीवन असहनीय हो गया तो उसने अपने कारागार की दीवारों पर बहुत जोर से लात मारी । इससे घोड़े के खुरों की अपेक्षा दीवार को कम चोट पहुँची । परन्तु लगातार लातों के बाद, पलस्तर के टुकड़े गिरने लगे । इससे मनुष्य को क्रोध आ गया । उसने कहा, “इसे कृतघ्नता कहते हैं । मैं इसे खिलाता हूँ, मैंने इसकी देखभाल करने के लिए नौकर रखे हैं, परन्तु दुष्ट जानवर मेरे उपकारों को नहीं देखता ।”
घोड़े को पातलू बनाने के लिए दृढ़ कदम उठाए गए । अन्त में मनुष्य गर्व के साथ कह सका कि घोड़े से अधिक उसके प्रति वफादार और कोई प्राणी नहीं है ।
पंजे और सींग उसके पास पहले से ही नहीं थे न उसके पास ऐसे दाँत थे जो काट सकें । कोड़े के डर से लात मारना भी उसे छोड़ना पड़ा । जो कुछ अब उसके पास बचा था वह था उसका हिनहिनाना ।
एक दिन स्रष्टा ने दुःखभरी हिनहिनाहट सुनी । वह अपने ध्यान से जागा और ऊपर से ही पृथ्वी के खुले मैदानों पर देखा । घोड़ा वहाँ नहीं था ।
उसने मृत्यु को बुलाया और कहा, “यह तुम्हारा काम है, तुमने मेरे घोड़े को पकड़ लिया है । ” मृत्यु ने कहा, “अविनाशी पिता, आप सदैन मुझ पर सन्देह करते हैं, परन्तु कृपा करके मनुष्य के घर पर दृष्टि डालें । स्रष्टा ने फिर नीचे देखा और घोड़े को एक सँकरी दीवार से घिरी जगह में दीनता से हिनहिनाते देखा ।
उसका ह्रदय करूणा से भर गया और उसने मनुष्य से कहा, “यदि तुमने घोड़े को स्वतंत्र नहीं किया तो मैं इसको चीते के समान दाँत और पंजे दे दूंगा ।
मनुष्य ने कहा, “परमपिता, आपका यह प्राणी स्वतंत्रता के योग्य नहीं है । देखिए, मैंने इसकी सुख-सुविधा के लिए कितना अच्छा अस्तबल बनाया है । “
परन्तु स्रष्टा ने जोर देकर कहा कि घोड़े को स्वतंत्र किया जाना चाहिए ।
मनुष्य ने कहा, “मैं आपकी इच्छा का पालन करूँगा । परन्तु मुझे विश्वास है कि आप एक सप्ताह में अपना विचार बदल देंगे और सहमत होंगे कि मेरा अस्तबल इसके लिए सर्वोत्तम स्थान है । मनुष्य ने तब घोड़े की आगे की टाँगों को रस्सी से एक साथ बाँध दिया और उसे स्वतंत्र कर दिया । इस प्रकार बांध देने पर घोड़ा केवल मेढ़क की भाँति इधर-उधर फुदक सकता था ।
स्वर्ण से स्रष्टा घोड़े को देख सका, परन्तु रस्सी को नहीं । वह शर्मा से लाल हो गया-तो इस प्रकार का प्राणी बनाया है मैंने! उसने अपने मन में स्वीकार किया कि उसकी भयंकर भूलों में से एक भूल यह भी है ।
मनुष्य ने कहा, “अब इसका क्या किया जाए ? क्या स्वर्ग में खुले मैदान नहीं है जहाँ इसे घूमने के लिए भेजा जा सके ?’ स्रष्टा ने उत्तर दिया, “मैं इससे थक चुका हूँ । इस प्राणी को अपने अस्तबल में ले जाओ । ” मनुष्य ने कहा, “परन्तु, परमपिता, मेरे लिए यह बोझ होगा । ‘ स्रष्टा ने उत्तर दिया, “हाँ, परन्तु बोझ की स्वीकार करके तुम अपने ह्रदय की विशालता का परिचय दोगे । “
Explain with reference to the context the following:
1 — Thework……………………………………………. have.”
Reference to the context: These lines have been extracted from the chapter ‘The Horse’. It is written by Rabindranath Tagore. In these lines, the creator (The God) decides to create our more animal species with the stuff remained after making the whole universe. Explanation: After the creator created the whole universe he got a new idea and called his assistant to brought some materials as he wanted to make a news species of animal. Assistant told him that in his creative enthusiasm he had made many species like elephants, lions, wholes etc. but never thought about the quantity of substance they cost. Only little of the heavier and harder material left but enough of lighter material. God considered it and told him to bring whatever he had.
2 — This time…………………….the horse.
Reference to the context: These lines have been extracted from the chapter ‘The Horse’. It is written by Rabindranath Tagore. In these lines the creator is creating horse with unique features.
Explanation: While making the new species this time the creator took care about the amount of materials he used. He gave no horns and claws to the new animal. He gave teeth to it with which it chew but not bite. He gave it the energy enough to exist on the battle field but not enough to fight its own battles. The animal created by the creator was the horse.
3 — Thecreator………………………….inyou.
Reference to the context: These lines have been extracted from the chapter ‘The Horse’. It is written by Rabindranath Tagore. In these lines, the characteristics of the new species were discussed.
Explanation: The creator made the horse with the materials as the air and the sky. He made with much lighter stuffs. The outcome was that it was different than other species, It had the keen desire of freedom and liberty. It was very fast in running. It had desire to run up to the horizon. Unlike other animals, it ran aimlessly. It was just eager and enthusiastic about itself and freedom.
4 — When…………………………… ……………… kindness.”
Reference to the context: These lines have been taken from the lesson ‘The Horse’ written by famous author Rabindranath Tagore. In the opinion of author when man made horse as his pet animal for his personal work, he saddled and tied it with a long narrow strap in his mouth. He also confined within the stable. In this way the horse lost its liberty and turned a slave of man. Explanation: The author says that due to the stable, the life for horse became unbearable. The life of horse became just like a prisoner, It began to kick the wall of the stable, This was a struggle of horse against slavery. As a result the plaster of the wall began to fall off. On such type of behaviour of horse made man too much angry. He rebuked the horse for it unpleasing behaviour. He himself repented that even showing so much kindness, the horse was ungrateful to him. He thought how he had appointed for it a trained and special servant to look after and betterment for it but this creature proved to be very
5 — Firm…………… Man.”
Reference to the context: These lines have been extracted from the chapter ‘The Horse’. It is writtenby the author Rabindranath Tagore. In these lines, the man had tamed the horse and the creator heard the misery of the horse.
Explanation: Many firm steps were taken to domesticate the horse and they were successful. The Horse did not have claws and horns to attack. He even could not bite with its teeth. The only thing it could do was kicking but it had to give it up too for fear of whip. It could just helplessly neigh. One day its helpless neigh was heard by the creator. He woke up and watched out for the horse but could not find it. He called the god of death and asked him about the horse, but he told him to look at the man’s house. The creator
looked down and saw his creation, the horse, standing and neighing distressedly. He felt bad for the horse.
6 — From …………………………… fallen.
Reference to the context: These lines have been extracted from the chapter ‘The Horse’. It is written by the author Rabindranath Tagore. In these lines the Creator admitted that he is ashamed of creating the horse.
Explanation: Man had tied the front legs of the horse before setting if free. The God could see the horse from paradise but not the string. The horse was free but it could only hop like a frog. This made the creator face red with the shame. He was ashamed for making such kind of species. He accepted to himself that it was one of the biggest and worst mistake ever.
Comprehension —– Read the passages and answer the questions given below them:
1 — This time the creator ………………….. as the horse.
Questions and their answers:
(i) What case did the creator take to make the new animal ?
Ans. The creator took care to employ only a little of the harder materials to make the new animal.
(ii) What did the creator do to make the new animals harmless ?
Ans. The creator did not give horns or claws to the new animal to make it harmless and he gave it the teeth that could chew but not bite.
(iii) How was the new animal useful on the battlefield ?
Ans. The energy he gave it was enough to make it useful on the battle field.
(iv) What name was given to the new animal ?
Ans. The new animal was given the name ‘the horse’.
(v) Describe the features of the new animal ?
Ans. The new animal had no claws and horns. He had teeth which could chew but not bite. He had given
the energy which was enough to make it useful on the battle field but unable to fight for itself.
2 — When life became ………….. ……………. see my kindness.”
Questions and their answers:
(i) How do you know that the horse was very angry ?
Ans. The horse kicked wildly at the walls of stable because it was like prison to it. The horse’s life was
unbearable in stable. Thus we came to know that the horse was very angry.
(ii) What happened, when the horse kicked wildly at its prison walls ?
Ans. When the horse kicked wildly at its prison walls then bits of plaster began to fall off.
(iii) What arrangements had the man made for the horse ?
Ans. Man provided food to the horse and appointed servants to look after it. There are the arrangements the man made for the horse.
(iv) How did the Man react to the horse’s behaviour ?
Ans. The Man was furious over the horse’s behaviour. He said that the horse was showing ingratitude towards him. He fed it and kept servants to take care of it but it did not care for all these comforts.
3 — Man then corded …………………… greatness of heart.
Questions and their answers:
(i) What did the man do with the horse ?
Ans. The man corded the front legs of the horse together so that it could not walk properly.
(ii) How could the creator persuade the man to keep the horse with himself ?
Ans. The creator told the man that if he would accept it, he would show his greatness of heart. Thus the creator persuade the man to keep the horse with himself.
(iii) How do you know that the man was unwilling to keep the horse with himself ?
Ans. According to the man, he fed horse and hired servants to take care of it but still the horse kicked wildly at its ‘prison’ walls due to which bits of plaster began to full off. It made hire angry. This the man was unwilling to keep the horse in his stable.
(iv) Why did the creator feel guilty to see the creature ?
Ans. Since man had tied horse with a cord, God could not see it from above. He could only see its defects. He agreed to man’s false reasoning. The result was that He felt guilty to see the creature.
(v) How would the creator have felt had he seen the creature hopping ?
Ans. If God had seen the horse tied with a cord, He would have felt pride of His creation. He would have certainly admitted man guilty. He would not have felt ashamed.
Short Answer type Questions—— Answer the following questions is not more than 30 words each:
1 — What was ‘a new idea’ which struck the creators mind ?
Ans. ‘Anew idea’ was to make a new species of animals that struck the creator’s mind.
2 — Why did the creator summon one of the His assistants ? What did the two talk about ?
Ans. The Creator summoned one of his assistants to brought Him some more materials to make a new species of animals. The assistant said that in his enthusiasm of creating creatures the creator did not of the
quantity of substance they cost.
3 — What qualities did the horse have ?
Ans. The horse had enough energy to make it useful on the battlefield. Its mind was full of the desire for freedom. It would run a race with the wind. It was eager to fly away from its own self. It loved to sun.
4 — Why did the horse lost its home as described by Rabindranath Tagore ?
Ans. The horse lost its home because it was tamed by the man and kept in the stable.
5 — Why did man think of capturing the horse ?
Ans. Man of capturing the horse to put his burden on it. He wanted to shift his burden.
6 — Could man finally tame the horse ? If yes, then how ?
Ans. Yes, Man finally tamed then horse, He cost his nets and captured the horse. He put a saddle on its back
and a curb in its mouth and kept it in a confined prison. This way he tamed the horse. 7 — Why did the creator grow red with shame when He saw the horse from heaven ?
Ans. He saw the horse hopping around in the field This made His face red with shame when He saw the horse from heaven.
— 8 Why did the creator think that the creation of the horse was a blunder ?
Ans. This is because the creator thought that He made it for the open fields, it was meant to run but it hopped like a frog.
9 — What are the different gifts given to different creatures by the creator ?
Ans. Some animals were given claws, horns to attack, some were given type of teeth which can chew us well as bite. Some was given forests to live and some were given den, fields etc. There are the gifts given to different creatures by the creators.
10 — Why was the creator distressed ?
Ans. The creator was distressed to see his creation, the horse, happing like a frog.
Long Answer Type Questions Answer the following questions in not more than 150 words each:
1 — ‘Man’s greatness of heart lies in his accepting the burden of life.” How is it illustrated in the story ‘The Horse’ ?
Ans. Aman should always accept his responsibilities and fulfil them. A man is called a ‘man’ for a reason. He has been created wise and intelligent among all the creatures so he has the responsibility to manage nature and animals and not to ruin and hurt them. In the story, ‘The Horse’, man uses the horse to lessen his burden. He does not think of its freedom and desire. He does not accept his work or ‘burden’ and put it over the horse. He wanted to get rid of his burden. so he is a man but of unkindness and cruelty. He has not accepted his burden. Thus Man’s greatness of heart lies in his accepting the burden of life.
2 — When did the creator realize his mistake in His creation of the horse ?
Ans. When the creator ordered the Man of free the horse then the Man set it free but tied its front legs with a cord because He did not want the creator’s kindness over the horse. The horse was free but it was unable to walk or run. It could hop only. The Creator saw the horse from heaven. He could see the horse but not the cord. He was very ashamed of himself. He thought that he had made a useless creature, he created it for running in the open fields but it was hopping like a frog. He grew red with shame. At this moment, the creator realized that it was one ofthe major and worst blunders he had created ever, He had realized is mistake.
3 — Why did God Compel Man to keep the horse with him forever ?
Ans. God created this universe. But He was not satisfied with this creation. So He had a keen desire to create a new type of animal. In this way the horse came into existence. God gave it full energy to run endlessly and aimlessly. He made it harmless and useful also. He gave it such type of teeth that could chew but not bite. He made a very useful for battle but did not give it a taste for fighting. He made its mind full of desire for freedom or liberty. These qualities proved to be curse for the horse. Man saw it running freely and fastly in the open field. He found it too much strong to shift his burden on to its strong back. So he cast his nets and captured it. He put a saddle on its back, a curb in its mouth and kept it confined in prison of stable. Then he took firm measures to tame it. In this way God made the horse and gave it full energy, too much fastness, love for freedom or liberty and usefulness. But these qualities proved to be curse for the horse. Man saw the usefulness of these qualities and tamed it. In this way the horse lost its freedom and became man’s faithful and useful servant.
4 — How did man take away the freedom of the horse ?
Ans. When man noticed this new animal created by God he caught him. He took away his freedom. He saddled the horse, curbed his mouth and imprisoned him in stable, He debarred him from the open field as his home. Now he was fully unable to escape from bondage, When life became unbearable in stable he began to kick wildly the walls of stable. This effort made him injured. Being afraid of whip, he left such act. Now he could only neigh. When the Creator of horse came to know all this, he was deeply shocked. He forced man to set him free from stable. Then man corded together the front legs of the horse and set him free from the stable. Thus he could only hop like a frog. The Creator could not see the trick of man. He Himself was too much ashamed at His work. He admitted that He had done the worst in creating such type of animal. He again commanded man to keep the horse with him.
Multiple choice Questions Choose the most suitable option:
1 — The work of creating the universe was nearly over when a new idea struck the Creator’s mind.
(a) mankind (b) earth (c) cattle (d) universe
2 — This time the Creator took care to employ only a little of the harder materials.
(a) little (b) a little (c) the little (d) so little
3 — The Creator was distressed with His own work.
(a) distressed (b) angry (c) happy (d) delighted
4 — One day the Man cast his nets and tamed the horse.
(a) attacked (b) freed (c) tamed
5 — Man then corded together the front legs and set it free. (a) goaded (b) loaded (c) corded
6 — “But Father what a burden it will be to me.”
(a) an (b) a (c) the (d) our
7 — The horse was kept in a narrow walled place.
(a) down (b) in (c) off (d) out
8 The work of creating the universe was nearly over when a new idea struck the Creator’s mind.
(a) work (b) deed (c) task (d) action
9 — The work of creating the universe was nearly over.
(a) completely (b) totally (c) utterly (d) nearly
10 — The Creator summoned Death.
(a) kicked (b) summoned (c) answered (d) looked
11 — He grew red with shame. (a)red (b) blue (c) black
12—The Creator looked down again and saw the horse standing in a narrow, walled space neighing weakly. (a) grunting (b) barking (c) roaring
13 — The horse was confined in a prison.
(a) confined (b) limited (c) bound (d) detained
1 — Write the meaning of the following words:
(i) zeal (ii) reflected (iii) saddle (iv) bondage (v) set free (vi) cord
(iii) saddle——–a leather seat
(v) set free—————-to grant freedom
2 — Match words under column ‘A’with their correct meanings under column ‘B’:
‘ stuff ——material
lowly set free
grant freedom to cord
3 — Look at the following sentences. There is a blank in each of them. Five alternative words are given with each sentence.
Fill in the blanks by choosing one that may make the sentence grammatically correct and meaningful:
(i) The Creator called out Death. (on, off, out, in, over)
(ii) You must give up your bad habits. (in, up, out, away, way)
(iii) Only a mother can look after her child well. (on, onto, after, upon, out)
(iv) Alarge number of prisoners were set free on the Independence Day. (free, off, about, aside, down)
(v) The horse was put down in a narrow, walled place. (on, down, off, out, up)
4 — Write the antonyms of the following words:
apathy, unclear, liberty, cheerful, absorb//